The first three months of being a parent can be some of the most challenging. So much changes as you get to know this demanding, adorable little stranger, while trying to look after yourself as well. It’s all a learning curve, so go easy on yourself, and take help if it’s offered.  

Remember, not only do you have to learn how to breastfeed, but your baby also needs to learn the best way to feed from the breast. And even if you’ve already breastfed one child, the next one can be different. But don’t stress – you’ll figure it out together.  

Plunket is always here to help too. We’re here to help you if you’re having trouble with breastfeeding, or anything else. We have a lactation consultant service, or you can call PlunketLine any time – day or night - on 0800 933 922 

Here are some of the problems you may encounter while breastfeeding, and what you can do to deal with some of those issues.   

Ministry of Health

Babies with tongue-tie

Tongue-tie is something a baby is born with. In most pēpi, the piece of skin under a baby’s tongue separates from the front end of the tongue before they’re born. Tongue-tie is when that piece of skin is still attached to the front end of the tongue at birth. 

A baby with tongue-tie might not be able to move their tongue freely. 

If the tip of your baby's tongue looks heart-shaped when their tongue sticks out, can't reach the roof of their mouth or further than the edge of their lower lip, or can't move sideways, your baby may have a tongue-tie. 

If you're breastfeeding and pēpi has tongue-tie, they might: 

  • have trouble latching or staying latched to your breast 
  • make a clicking sound when they're feeding. 
  • Your nipples might look squashed after feeding, and might feel sore or damaged. 

Tongue-tie usually doesn’t need treatment, because the piece of skin loosens itself as most babies get older. But sometimes that doesn't happen,  and it might affect breastfeeding. If this is the case, your child can have a procedure called a frenectomy, which involves cutting the fold of skin with a laser or scissors.  

Talk to your health professional if you’re concerned. They can help you decide whether your pēpi needs a frenectomy, and which approach is best for your child.  

Baby won’t breastfeed

It can be really upsetting if your baby suddenly refuses to breastfeed after they’ve been feeding well. Normally breastfeeding strikes only last a few days, but they can last as long as 10 days. And it can hurt (mentally as well as physically), or even make you feel pēpi doesn’t like you.  

It's perfectly normal to feel that way, but rest assured your baby hasn't gone off you, just off the idea of feeding for some reason. Tell your midwife, Plunket nurse, or healthcare professional how you're feeling. They'll support you through this stage.  

Try not to worry about it too much. It's just your baby's way of telling you that something's not right. There are any number of reasons why they may not be feeding. Perhaps: 

  • your baby has a cold
  • your baby is uncomfortable or in pain
  • your baby is having trouble attaching to your breast
  • your baby is overtired, distracted, or overstimulated, which is normal in older babies
  • your milk tastes different - it could be something you ate, medication you're taking, or hormonal changes (maybe you're about to have a period)
  • your milk flow is slower to let down, or the flow is faster than usual
  • your baby might prefer one breast over the other. 

Most of these reasons are temporary, and will go away on their own; otherwise they can be sorted out with a few simple changes to your routine. 

You could try:  

  • to relax and be as patient as you can
  • a new feeding position
  • hand-expressing some milk into your baby’s mouth, this might encourage them to feed
  • giving your baby a breastfeed after their bath, when they’re warm and relaxed
  • breastfeeding in a quiet place
  • playing some relaxing background music, or feeding in a rocking chair
  • offering a feed when your baby is first stirring from sleep or just going to sleep, or when baby is calm. You can use skin-to-skin contact to calm them, and you or your partner can do this.  
  • trying again later when your baby's more settled. 

Baby biting breast

Some babies might like to bite once they’ve finished feeding, or to get your attention. Others may bite because they can’t wait to eat and the milk isn’t flowing fast enough. Whatever the reason, it can really hurt if baby bites you while you’re breastfeeding. Pulling them off the breast while they’re biting can be even more painful. 

If your baby’s a chomper, say ‘no’ calmly and firmly. Try taking them gently off the breast when they bite by inserting your finger gently between the baby’s mouth and your nipple, have a short break, and then try again. Doing this every time they bite will teach them breastfeeding stops when they bite.  

You might also want to try offering your baby something else to chew on, like a teething ring.  

If the bite breaks the skin on your nipple it can lead to infection, so take care. 

Sore and cracked nipples

Nipples shouldn’t be sore during the feed.  

Possible causes are: 

  • the baby being in the wrong position at the breast
  • using too high a setting on a breast pump
  • wearing a nursing bra that’s too tight
  • dry skin or skin conditions like eczema
  • a thrush infection of the nipple, areola (the darker area around the nipple) and/or breast. Signs you may see and/or feel are: 
    • burning nipple pain 
    • flaking skin on the nipple or areola 
    • shiny skin on the nipple or areola 
    • painful breasts without tender spots or sore lumps 
    • stabbing pains in the breasts behind the areola. 

If your baby’s mouth is infected, they may have one or more of the following symptoms: 

  • white patches inside their cheeks or on their tongue or gums that may look like leftover milk. When wiped off they leave red sore areas which may bleed. 
  • an uncomfortable or painful mouth, making them fussy during and between feeds. They may slip on and off the breast and may make a clicking sound. 

See your GP or your midwife if you think you may have thrush. 

To help heal sore and cracked nipples 

  • Avoid soap or cleansers when washing your nipples. 
  • Express a few drops of breast milk, gently massage it on your nipples, and allow it to dry. 
  • Leave your nipples uncovered or loosely covered between feeds to help them heal. 
  • Make sure your nipples dry completely after feeding.  
  • Change your nursing pads often, if you use them. This helps keep bacteria at bay.  
  • Paracetamol is safe to take for pain when you’re breastfeeding. Take it as directed on the packet, and see your health professional if pain persists. 

See your health provider if the pain continues. If you can’t improve your baby’s position on the breast, and your nipples aren’t healing or are still painful, get help from PlunketLine on 0800 933 922, your midwife or doctor, Plunket nurse, or the La Leche League. 

La Leche League can also help if you're having trouble breastfeeding.

La Leche League

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La Leche League NZ offers support and resources for breastfeeding mothers.

Low milk supply

The size of your breasts and how full they feel aren't signs of how much milk the breasts hold. Generally speaking, the more milk your baby takes, the more the breasts make. 

If you're worried about your milk supply, check in with your Plunket nurse, lactation consultant, or your GP to assess whether you really do have a low supply - a few simple tweaks might help.  

Taking care of yourself is a great way to help your milk supply. Try to: 

  • eat healthy, nutritious meals and snacks. Your body needs lots of protein and healthy carbohydrate to keep you going, and to make milk
  • make sure you drink enough water. Keep a sipper bottle within reach
  • give yourself some time out to relax and de-stress. Let someone you trust watch your baby while you rest, go for a walk, take a shower, or just breathe! And sleep when the baby sleeps if you can
  • try expressing with a breast pump after your baby has finished feeding to stimulate your milk supply. 

Talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or Plunket nurse before taking herbal supplements or other remedies to boost your milk supply. 

Some women can't breastfeed, and that's okay too.

Engorgement or breast fullness

Breast engorgement is a common problem in the early days and weeks of breastfeeding. Once your baby is born, your breasts are given a signal to start full milk production. Blood flows to your breasts, and your milk usually comes in one to four days after the birth. Breast engorgement is when your breasts get swollen, hot and painful to touch.  

To relieve breast fullness and engorgement try to: 

  • feed frequently, making sure your baby is attached well to avoid sore, cracked nipples 
  • gently express milk to soften the areola (darker area around the nipple). If it’s swollen, the baby can’t get onto the breast easily 
  • use different feeding positions or trying to feed lying down 
  • have a warm shower before feeding 
  • apply cool face cloths (flannels) on the breasts between feeds 
  • wear a comfortable, non-restrictive, supportive bra 
  • take paracetamol as directed on the packet for pain (see your health professional if pain continues for more than a couple of days). 
Read more about oversupply and engorgement

Raising Children Network

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The Australian parenting website

Blocked milk ducts

Milk ducts carry the milk from deep in the breast to the nipple, and sometimes these ducts can become blocked. A lump forms when milk builds up behind the blockage, and your breast starts to feel sore. It may become engorged in one spot, and might also look red. You might also see a white spot on your nipple. 

To help prevent blocked milk ducts, wear loose clothing and a well-fitted bra. 

How to clear blocked milk ducts 

You can try: 

  • feeding from the affected breast first, when baby is sucking vigorously
  • feeding more frequently from the affected breast, but do continue to feed from both breasts. Applying warmth to the affected breast before a feed can help with milk flow
  • gently massaging any lumpy areas towards the nipple when you’re feeding
  • changing the position you use for feeding. If possible, try feeding baby in a position where their chin is near the blocked duct
  • hand express if needed, after feeds 
  • cold packs after a feed might help relieve pain and inflammation. 

See your GP if you can’t clear the lump in a few days, or sooner if you develop a fever or feel unwell, as this is a sign of mastitis (see below).  

Mastitis (breast infection)

Mastitis is usually the result of a blocked milk duct that hasn't cleared. Some of the milk built up behind the blocked duct can be forced into nearby breast tissue, and the tissue becomes inflamed. The inflammation is called mastitis. Infection may or may not be present.  

Some women who have no early signs of a blocked duct still get mastitis. 

Symptoms of a breast infection are: 

  • aches and pains 
  • fever 
  • feeling shivery like the flu 
  • a painful pink or red and swollen area on the breast. The skin might be shiny and there may be red steaks. 

If you have any of these symptoms, contact your midwife or doctor, or phone PlunketLine on 0800 933 922 as soon as possible. You may need antibiotics to clear the infection. 

If you have mastitis: 

  • Get as much rest as possible – we know it’s hard to do when you’re a mum. Stay in bed if you can, sleep when your baby sleeps if you can, or at least put your feet up as much as you can. If you do go to bed, take everything you need with you - all you need to change nappies, food and drinks - so you don't have to keep getting up. Have your baby near you in their own safe sleep space, lying on their back with their face clear. If you have other children, it may be better to rest in your living area. 
  • Drink extra fluids. 
  • Keep feeding your baby. It’ll help your symptoms clear more quickly if your sore breast is kept as empty as possible. The milk is perfectly safe for your baby to drink.  
  • You could use heat before a feed to help trigger your let-down reflex (the reflex that makes the milk in your breasts available to your baby). This could help clear the blockage and may relieve pain. You could have a warm shower, or hold a heat pack (like a wheat pack you heat in the microwave oven), a well-covered hot water bottle, warm hand towel, or a face cloth wrung out in hot water, on your breast. 
  • Start each feed on the sore breast. Let your baby suck long enough on this side to make sure it’s being drained well. Don’t forget to feed from the other breast too. 
  • Try changing feeding positions to help to clear the blockage. 
  • Try gently massaging the breast by stroking toward the nipple while your baby feeds. 
  • If your baby won’t suck, it could be because mastitis can make your milk taste a bit salty. If this is the case, you could hand express the milk under a warm shower. 
  • Try using cold packs on the affected breast to help reduce swelling and relieve pain. 
  • Paracetamol may also help the pain.  

Make sure you visit your GP if you suspect you have mastitis, because you might need antibiotics. If antibiotics are prescribed, make sure you finish the whole course. Some mothers may get thrush after a course of antibiotics, so if you've had a thrush infection in the past, discuss this with your doctor.   

If mastitis isn’t treated quickly, a breast abscess can form, which requires further treatment. 

Read more about blocked milk ducts, mastitis and breast abscess

Raising Children Network

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The Australian parenting website

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Call PlunketLine 24/7 on 0800 933 922