How do you catch measles?
Measles is highly contagious and spreads through the air by coughing, sneezing, saliva, mucus, or by touching an infected surface. It can survive for up to two hours in the air. A person with measles is most contagious from when symptoms start until three to four days after the rash appears.
Who is at risk of catching measles?
- People who haven't received at least one dose of a measles vaccine
- People who haven't already had the disease
Measles can lead to serious complications, including:
- Ear infections, which can cause permanent hearing loss
- Swelling of the brain – this is rare, but can cause permanent brain damage or death.
It takes about 10-12 days for your child to develop symptoms after being in contact with someone with measles.
Immediate symptoms may include:
- Runny nose
- Sore and watery pink eyes (conjunctivitis)
- Small white spots on the back inner cheek of the mouth (called Koplik spots).
Day 3-7 symptoms may include:
- A blotchy rash that starts on the face, behind the ears, and moves over the head and down the body. This lasts up to a week.
If your child has measles symptoms
- Stay home. Don’t go to work or send your child to day care or school to prevent the spread of infection
- Call PlunketLine or your doctor to check if your child needs to be seen
- Don't go to your doctor's clinic without phoning first, because measles can spread easily to others in the waiting room.
Caring for your child with measles
Tamariki with measles can be very unwell and need lots of care. There’s no specific antiviral treatment for measles, but hospital care (when needed) can help to manage severe complications.
If your child is at home you can support them with:
- Healthy meals
- Vitamin A supplements
- Lots of fluids
- Cuddles and reassurance.
It’s important to take care of yourself too, as this can be a stressful, worrying and tiring time. Take time to rest and eat well. If possible, get your whānau or friends to help.
How to protect your child
- Check your child’s MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccination status. If they have not had the MMR vaccine, get them vaccinated.
- Children usually receive their MMR vaccinations at 12 months and 15 months. It's important to get vaccinated on time - but it's never too late to catch up.
- Parents of infants aged six to 11 months who are concerned about their pēpi being at high risk of exposure can talk to their GP, who may recommend an MMR vaccine dose 0 if they feel it is appropriate. They will still need doses at 12 months and 15 months for the best possible immunity.
- Make sure you and the rest of your whānau are vaccinated. If you are born before 1969 (and you’re 50 or older), you are considered to have immunity. People born after that date need to have had two doses for full immunity.
- Infants aged under six months are too young to receive an MMR vaccination, which is why it's so important for the rest of the whānau to be vaccinated.
Measles Immunisation Facts
- Immunisation is the only way to prevent measles.
- It's FREE for anyone to get vaccinated.
- Two doses of the measles vaccine provides the most effective protection for you, your family and the wider community. After one dose of the MMR vaccine, about 95% of people are protected from measles. After two doses, more than 99% of people are protected.
- If you're unsure whether your child has been immunised, or you can't find your records, you can check with your Well Child Tamariki Ora provider, or contact your family doctor.
- If you're still unsure, it's safe to get vaccinated again with two more doses.
Measles and pregnancy
Most pregnant people are already immune through a previous MMR vaccination. If you're not sure if you've been immunised, check your records in your Well Child Tamariki Ora or Plunket book, or ask your family doctor.
People who are pregnant should not get the vaccine.
Pregnant people who catch the measles during pregnancy are at risk of miscarriage, premature (early) labour and having babies with low birth weight. If you are pregnant and know you have encountered someone who has confirmed measles, you should discuss this immediately with your prenatal care or doctor.